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United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Chris Daly, Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Originator:
George Taylor, the Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 200009
Title: United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher:
Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University; USDA - NRCS National Water and Climate Center, Portland, Oregon; USDA - NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center, Fort Worth, Texas
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/products/datasets/climate/data/index.html>
Description:
Abstract:
This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) derived raster data is the underlying data set from which the polygons and vectors were created. PRISM is an analytical model that uses point data and a digital elevation model (DEM) to generate gridded estimates of annual, monthly and event-based climatic parameters.
Purpose:
These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. The data should be displayed and analyzed at scales appropriate for 1:2,000,000-scale data. No responsibility is assumed by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, the USDA - NRCS National Water and Climate Center, the USDA - NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center, or the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.

Supplemental_Information:
There are many methods of interpolating precipitation from monitoring stations to grid points. Some provide estimates of acceptable accuracy in flat terrain, but few have been able to adequately explain the extreme, complex variations in precipitation that occur in mountainous regions. Significant progress in this area has been achieved through the development of PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model). PRISM is an analytical model that uses point data and a digital elevation model (DEM) to generate gridded estimates of monthly and annual precipitation (as well as other climatic parameters). PRISM is well suited to regions with mountainous terrain, because it incorporates a conceptual framework that addresses the spatial scale and pattern of precipitation in such regions.

Detailed descriptions of the PRISM raster data can be found on the Oregon State University PRISM web page at <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/>. Additional information is available through the Natural Resources Conservation Service web pages at the National Water and Climate Center at <http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/climate/prism.html> or through the National Cartography and Geospatial Center at <http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/products/datasets/climate/>.

Other source PRISM data sets are also available in Arc/INFO ASCII GRID format from the Spatial Climate Analysis Service. See <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/products/> for more information.

NRCS offers the source PRISM data packaged on 3 CD-ROM's covering the Lower 48 United States. The CD-ROM's are available as a set for $150.00. The 48 States are broken into three regions: East, Central and West. Each CD contains the annual and monthly precipitation coverages, as well as the gridded data. The CD-ROM's may be ordered through <http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/products/datasets/climate/data/precipitation>- order.html>.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:
No updates are planned for the 1961-1990 climatological period. However, a similar data set will probably be produced in 2001 for the 1971-2000 climatological period.
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.762142
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.957227
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.371731
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.545220
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters

Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Precipitation
Theme_Keyword: Rainfall
Theme_Keyword: Climate
Theme_Keyword: PRISM

Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Alabama
Place_Keyword: Arizona
Place_Keyword: Arkansas
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: Colorado
Place_Keyword: Connecticut
Place_Keyword: Delaware
Place_Keyword: District of Columbia
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: Georgia
Place_Keyword: Idaho
Place_Keyword: Illinois
Place_Keyword: Indiana
Place_Keyword: Iowa
Place_Keyword: Kansas
Place_Keyword: Kentucky
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Maine
Place_Keyword: Maryland
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Michigan
Place_Keyword: Minnesota
Place_Keyword: Mississippi
Place_Keyword: Missouri
Place_Keyword: Montana
Place_Keyword: Nebraska
Place_Keyword: Nevada
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Place_Keyword: New Mexico
Place_Keyword: New York
Place_Keyword: North Carolina
Place_Keyword: North Dakota
Place_Keyword: Ohio
Place_Keyword: Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: South Carolina
Place_Keyword: South Dakota
Place_Keyword: Tennessee
Place_Keyword: Texas
Place_Keyword: Utah
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: West Virginia
Place_Keyword: Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: Wyoming
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgement of the PRISM model, the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Water and Climate Center, the NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center (NCGC), and (or) the National Atlas of the United States would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: 316 Strand Agricultural Hall, Oregon State University
City: Corvallis
State_or_Province: OR
Postal_Code: 97331-2202
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 541-737-2531
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 541-737-5710
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: daly@coas.oregonstate.edu
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Windows NT Version 4.0 (Build 1381) Service Pack 4; ESRI Arc/INFO 8.0.345


Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Point estimates of precipitation from the U.S. National 1961-1990 Climate Normals were subjected to manual quality control checks by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). PRISM precipitation estimates were reviewed by the PRISM Evaluation Group, a panel of climatologists, meteorologists, and hydrologists. The task of this group was to assess the assumptions made by the model and compare model output with the best available precipitation maps from several western States. The group found that the PRISM maps equaled or exceeded the accuracy of the best maps available.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Precipitation data were derived from two main sources, NCDC Climate Normals and NRCS Cooperative Snow Survey Data (SNOTEL). In general, NCDC stations are located at low elevations and in valley bottoms, and encompass the entire United States. SNOTEL stations are located primarily at high elevations in the western United States.

Polygon and chain-node topology are present. Checks were made to ensure that no two adjacent polygons are labeled with the same precipitation value. A manual spot check was made of peaks, depressions, and islands.

Completeness_Report:
This data set includes observations and interpolated values for the 48 contiguous United States and the District of Columbia, for the climatological period 1961-1990. This data set is a compilation of the best available data from the various data sources.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Type_of_Source_Media: Proprietary software
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1994
Ending_Date: 1998
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: PRISM
Source_Contribution:
PRISM was used to create gridded estimates of precipitation from point observations and digital elevation model data. For a more detailed description of the PRISM process, see: Daly, C., W.P. Gibson, G.H. Taylor, G.L. Johnson, P. Pasteris. 2002. A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate. Climate Research, 22: 99-113, <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/pub/prism/docs/climres02-kb_approach>_ statistical_mapping-daly.pdf>.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Gaussian Filter
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Type_of_Source_Media: Proprietary software
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1994
Ending_Date: 1998
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Source_Contribution:
The Gaussian filter was used to change the resolution of raster data from 4 km to 2 km. The Gaussian filter was implemented as custom software written in FORTRAN. For information about Gaussian filters see: Barnes, Stanley L., 1964; A Technique for Maximizing Details in Numerical Weather Map Analysis. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 3, 396- 409.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
U.S. National 1961-1990 Climate Normals, Climatography of the United States No. 81 - Monthly Normals
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Asheville, NC, USA
Publisher: National Climatic Data Center
Other_Citation_Details:
For more information on this source, please see <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/normals/usnormalshist.html#clim81>.
Type_of_Source_Media: Online database
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81

Source_Contribution: Location and values of known average annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
Cooperative Snow Survey Data of Federal-State-Private Cooperative Snow Surveys (SNOTEL)
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Cooperative Snow Survey Data of Federal-State-Private Cooperative Snow Surveys
Issue_Identification: Annual issue for Western US states
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Portland, OR, USA
Publisher: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Other_Citation_Details:
For more information on this source, please see <http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/snow/>.
Type_of_Source_Media: Database, paper, and online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Contribution:
Location and values of known average monthly and annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Water and Climate Center
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title: Local precipitation monitoring networks
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Source_Contribution: Location and values of known average annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Defense Mapping Agency
Publication_Date: 1985
Title: 1:250,000-scale Digital Elevation Models (DEM)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://edc.usgs.gov/geodata/>
Type_of_Source_Media: Digital files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1985
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Contribution:
Terrain surface input to the PRISM model for estimation of precipitation between known points.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: State Boundaries of the United States
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpbound#chpbound>
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1999
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-ST
Source_Contribution:
This file was used to determine the boundary of the data included.

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The DEM resolution was changed to 4 km using the Gaussian filter.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: All the station data was combined into one master data set.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data from CLIM81, SNOTEL, and LOCAL were incorporated into the PRISM model and combined with the DEM to produce the initial 4 km-resolution PRISM model output.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: PRISM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The PRISM model output was converted from 4 km to 2 km using a Gaussian filter.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The 2 km raster data was contoured using Arc/INFO.
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Adjacent isohyets were converted to areas or polygons using a custom- designed macro (AML) in Arc/INFO.
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The coverage was created by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service using custom software. The Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Cartography and Geospatial Center edited the file in Arc/INFO to match the coastlines and boundaries (Atlas-ST) from the National Atlas of the United States. The data were converted to shapefile format for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-ST
Process_Date: 200002


Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: GT-polygon composed of chains
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 6243


Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.02083333
Longitude_Resolution: 0.02083333
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222


Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label:
Area of equal average annual precipitation (described by prismp020.dbf)
Entity_Type_Definition:
Each polygon represents an area with a constant value for the average annual precipitation, as determined by the PRISM model.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Spatial Climate Analysis Service PRISM Project
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: The representation of the entity in the data.
Attribute_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Polygon
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: A 2-dimensional element.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: ESRI GIS software
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Area
Attribute_Definition:
The size of the shape in square coverage units. In the distributed file, coverage units represent square decimal degrees.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.00000
Range_Domain_Maximum: 115.09402
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Perimeter
Attribute_Definition:
The perimeter of the shape in coverage units. In the distributed file, coverage units represent decimal degrees.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.00647
Range_Domain_Maximum: 874.33448
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Prism0p020
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 2
Range_Domain_Maximum: 6244
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Range
Attribute_Definition: The average annual precipitation.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.000
Range_Domain_Maximum: 200.000
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: Inches
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 2.5


Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA - NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: 501 W Felix, PO Box 6567
City: Ft. Worth
State_or_Province: TX
Postal_Code: 76115
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 817-509-3366
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: snechero@ftw.nrcs.usda.gov
Distribution_Liability:
These spatial datasets, associated metadata and documentation are provided at media cost, without restriction or restraint of use, from the USDA- Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Spatial Climate Analysis Service. The project was directed and sponsored by the NRCS National Water and Climate Center in Portland, Oregon. None of the agencies involved, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or misuse of the data, nor represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. The agencies involved are not responsible for damage, transmission of viruses, or computer contamination through the distribution of this data set. Neither do they assume any responsibility for the usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this metadata. Reference in this metadata to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, the State of Oregon, or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed in this metadata do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, the State of Oregon, or any agency thereof.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ESRI Shapefile
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/products/datasets/climate/data/index.html>
Fees: None


Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 507 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS (1-888-275-8747)
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-5920
Contact_Instructions:
In addition to the address above there are other ESIC offices throughout the country. A full list of these offices is at <http://ask.usgs.gov/esic_index.html>.
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ESRI Shapefile
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: SDTS
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim>
Fees:
There is no charge for the map layer.


Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20060607
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peg Rawson
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Address: MS 561
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-4183
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: atlasmail@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None


 


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