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Nighttime Lights of North America

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: 200301
Title: Nighttime Lights of North America
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Online_Linkage: <http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html>
Description:
Abstract:
This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The data available through the National Atlas of the United States are in GeoTIFF format. This is a revised version of the May 2002 map layer, with a corrected shoreline for Greenland.

Purpose:
These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. The data should be displayed and analyzed at scales appropriate for 1:2,000,000-scale data. No responsibility is assumed by the National Atlas of the United States in the use of these data.

Supplemental_Information:
The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic, hydrologic, cryospheric and near-Earth space environments. The DMSP program maintains a constellation of two, sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes and inclination is 99 degrees. The atmospheric and oceanographic sensors record radiances at visible, infrared and microwave wavelengths. The solar-geophysical sensors measure ionospheric plasma fluxes, densities, temperatures and velocities.

The OLS (Operational Linescan System) visible band (0.4-1.1 micrometers) is used to locate recurring nighttime lights. The thermal OLS band (10.5-12.5 micrometers) is used to screen for cloud free orbits. During the periods 16-21 March, 1996, 5-14 January, 1997, and 3-12 February, 1997, the gain on the OLS sensor was turned down to 24 from the normal 64 decibels. The result was an image in which urban centers do not saturate the signal.

DMSP visible and infrared imagery of clouds covers a 3,000 km swath, thus each satellite provides global coverage of both daytime and nighttime conditions each day. The field view of the microwave imagers and sounders is only 1,500 km, thus approximately 3 days data are required for one instrument to provide global coverage at equatorial latitudes. The solar-geophysical instruments make in-situ measurements of ionospheric parameters, some of which vary very rapidly.

This program is a joint effort with extensive collaboration between the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Office, Air Force Global

Weather Central, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development

Program, the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Further information on the Defense Meterological Satellite Program can be found at <http://dmsp.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp.html>.

The associated world file is included as part of the GeoTIFF. The contents of the world file are:

769.4780
0.000000
0.000000
-769.4780
-6086744.0000
4485901.0000
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19960316
Ending_Date: 19970212
Currentness_Reference: Ground condition

Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed

Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.00
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -4.00
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.00
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 15.00
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover
Theme_Keyword: Society
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: DMSP
Theme_Keyword: Global Change
Theme_Keyword: Meteorological Satellites
Theme_Keyword: Satellite Imagery
Theme_Keyword: Nighttime Lights
Theme_Keyword: Population
Theme_Keyword: Visible
Theme_Keyword: City Lights
Theme_Keyword: Radiance
Theme_Keyword: Night lights
Theme_Keyword: Urban lights
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: USA
Place_Keyword: Alabama
Place_Keyword: Alaska
Place_Keyword: Arizona
Place_Keyword: Arkansas
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: Colorado
Place_Keyword: Connecticut
Place_Keyword: Delaware
Place_Keyword: District of Columbia
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: Georgia
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Idaho
Place_Keyword: Illinois
Place_Keyword: Indiana
Place_Keyword: Iowa
Place_Keyword: Kansas
Place_Keyword: Kentucky
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Maine
Place_Keyword: Maryland
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Michigan
Place_Keyword: Minnesota
Place_Keyword: Mississippi
Place_Keyword: Missouri
Place_Keyword: Montana
Place_Keyword: Nebraska
Place_Keyword: Nevada
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Place_Keyword: New Mexico
Place_Keyword: New York
Place_Keyword: North Carolina
Place_Keyword: North Dakota
Place_Keyword: Ohio
Place_Keyword: Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: South Carolina
Place_Keyword: South Dakota
Place_Keyword: Tennessee
Place_Keyword: Texas
Place_Keyword: Utah
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: West Virginia
Place_Keyword: Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: Wyoming
Place_Keyword: Puerto Rico
Place_Keyword: Virgin Islands
Place_Keyword: Greenland
Place_Keyword: Iceland
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Mexico
Place_Keyword: Caribbean

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgment of the National Geophysical Data Center and (or) the National Atlas of the United States of America would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS, National Geophysical Data Center
Contact_Person: Dr. Christopher D. Elvidge
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: E/GC2, 325 Broadway
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80305
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 303-497-6121
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 303-497-6513

Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Chris.Elvidge@noaa.gov


Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
No checks for logical consistency were performed on this map layer.
Completeness_Report:
This map layer contains nighttime lights information for all of North America excluding southern Mexico, and for the Caribbean, parts of Russia, and Greenland.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: DMSP - OLS data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, CO
Publisher: NOAA/NESDIS, National Geophysical Data Center
Type_of_Source_Media: magnetic tape
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19960316
Ending_Date: 19970212
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DMSPOLS
Source_Contribution: Nighttime lights information
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Atlas of the United States
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Shoreline file in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Type_of_Source_Media: internal file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1972
Ending_Date: 1999
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: shorelp020l
Source_Contribution: Shoreline mask for area of coverage.

Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: 200105
Title: Nighttime Lights of North America
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Type_of_Source_Media: online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19960316
Ending_Date: 19970212
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE2001
Source_Contribution: Nighttime Lights TIFF image.

Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Atlas of the United States
Publication_Date: 200205
Title: North America Land/Water Mask
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Type_of_Source_Media: ftp site
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 200205
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: GRDMSKI
Source_Contribution: Shoreline information

Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Geophysical Data Center
Publication_Date: 200205
Title: Nighttime Lights of North America
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: National Atlas of the United States
Type_of_Source_Media: online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19960316
Ending_Date: 19970212
Source_Currentness_Reference: Ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE200205
Source_Contribution: Nighttime Lights TIFF image.

Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Publication_Date: 1990
Title: World Vector Shoreline
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Bethesda, MD
Publisher: National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Online_Linkage: <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/shorelines/shorelines.html>
Type_of_Source_Media: Online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1990
Source_Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: WVS
Source_Contribution: Shoreline information.

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
During the periods from 16-21 March, 1996, 5-14 January, 1997, and 3- 12 February, 1997, the gain on the OLS sensor was turned down to 24 from the normal 64 decibels. The result was an image in which urban centers do not saturate the signal. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) received the complete DMSP data stream in the same form in which it was received at Air Force Weather Agency. NGDC processed the map layer to restore data lost during transmission and compute satellite positions.

In addition, very near infrared (VNIR) emission sources and clouds for each of the suborbits were detected and geolocated, and the data were composited. Image time series analysis was used to distinguish lights produced by cities, towns, and industrial facilities from sensor noise and ephemeral lights arising from fires and lightning. The time series approach was required to ensure that each land area was covered with sufficient cloud free observations to determine the presence or absence of VNIR emission sources.

The worldwide nighttime lights data file (DMSPOLS) was received in TIFF format. The file was converted to JPEG format and resampled in Adobe Photoshop to reduce the file size. The file was then converted to ESRI GRID format, the image was truncated using the shoreline mask (shorelp020l), and the value of the water areas was set to 255. The file was converted back to TIFF format.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DMSPOLS
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: shorelp020l
Process_Date: 1999
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE2001

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Coastlines in Canada, Mexico, Russia, and in the Caribbean were corrected. A GeoTIFF Revision 1.0 header was added and PackBits compression was applied to the image.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE2001
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: GRDMSKI
Process_Date: 200205
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE200205

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The coastline of Greenland was replaced by a new, corrected version derived from World Vector Shoreline (WVS). This image contains no thematic data for Greenland; the new data were inserted only to maintain consistency with other National Atlas data layers.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LIGHTS_IMAGE200205
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: WVS
Process_Date: 200212


Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell
Row_Count: 9448
Column_Count: 13471


Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
Lambert_Azimuthal_Equal_Area:
Longitude_of_Projection_Center: -100.00
Latitude_of_Projection_Center: 45.00
False_Easting: 0.0
False_Northing: 0.0

Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 769.478
Ordinate_Resolution: 769.478
Planar_Distance_Units: Meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: None
Ellipsoid_Name: Sphere
Semi-major_Axis: 6370997.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 1.0


Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Nighttime lights grid cell
Entity_Type_Definition: Any of the data elements in the nighttime lights file.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Nighttime lights grid cell value
Attribute_Definition:
The value is a measure of the intensity of nighttime lights in the grid cell. Light intensity is described by a range of values, where smaller values represent higher intensity, and larger values represent lower intensity.
Attribute_Definition_Source: National Atlas of the United States
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 72
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 255
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Water
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source:
National Atlas of the United States


Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 507 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS (1-888-275-8747)
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-5920
Contact_Instructions:
In addition to the address above there are other ESIC offices throughout the country. A full list of these offices is at <http://geography.usgs.gov/esic/esic_index.html>.
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: TIFF
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html>
Fees:
There is no charge for the map layer.


Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20050926
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peg Rawson
Contact_Organization: National Atlas of the United States
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Address: MS-561
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-4183
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: atlasmail@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: Universal time
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None


 


Generated by mp version 2.8.16 on Wed Mar 29 16:13:38 2006